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Crime Beat

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Crime Beat: Extract 3 from Life is a Thriller

This is the last extract from the collection of papers – Life is a Thriller: Investigating African Crime Fiction, edited by Anja Oed and Christine Matzke, and published by Rudiger Koppe Verlag. Copies can be obtained from the publisher. Here Christine Matzke discusses her reading list of African crime fiction (up to 2011) which – although she admits it is incomplete – is as close as you can get to an overview survey.

Of Guns, Ghosts, and Gangsters:

a preliminary checklist of African and African-Diasporic crime novels in English

Christine Matzke

For many years I have been reading and enjoying crime fiction by African and African-Diasporic writers. What I could not find in the usual bookshops or during my travels, I was given by my ‘crime fiction scouts’ on their return from Ghana, Tanzania, Zimbabwe or South Africa. My bookshelves filled, as did my mental list of works I still wanted to read. My initial curiosity became a mild addiction, with the occasional feverish bout. Part of my affliction lay in the reading pleasure, part of it in the actual detection of new or long forgotten texts.

This collection of essays provides me with the perfect opportunity to share both shelves and lists with other crime fiction aficionados and critics in the field. Apart from a general health warning – there is indeed a serious danger of a crime fiction dependency – I need to add the usual academic words of caution. For one, this checklist does not claim to be exhaustive, but is an attempt at providing first stepping stones into the shadowy world of African crime narratives in English. Only novels are included, not (collections of) short stories or plays. Also omitted is colonial crime fiction with an African setting. Juvenile and young adult literature, however, is taken into account as some of the most popular book series can be con­sidered to belong to that category. (Series titles, if provided at all, directly follow the name of the publishing house as with Macmillan Pacesetters, Heinemann Front­liners, etc.; otherwise items are simply in alphabetical order).

This checklist was primarily compiled from my personal holdings, those at the Humboldt University, Berlin, and the University of Bayreuth. Wherever possible I have checked entries against the original, though in some cases this proved to be difficult. I also consulted the Cape Town-based blog “Crime Beat” (http://crime, Google Books, various publishers’ websites and scholarly data­bases such as the MLA and JSTOR. The latter are more useful for the compilation of critical material, which will be a future project.

Readers interested in mid-twentieth century South Africa might find further material in Susan Friedland’s bibliography of South African Detective Stories in English and Afrikaans from 1951–1971 (1972). Available in the British Library, Friedland’s bibliography lists South African writers who write crime fiction, and writers of other nationalities who use South Africa as a setting. Excerpts from her compil­ation are also reprinted in Mysteries of Africa (Schleh 1991: 92-97).

Friedland’s idea of what constitutes South African detective stories’ brings me to the central question: What is ‘African crime fiction in English’? Students of African literature will be reminded of Ngũgĩ’s canonised remarks at the 1962 Makerere Conference of African Writers of English Expression in which he reiter­ated some of the ongoing debate about ‘African literature’: “Was it literature about Africa or about the African experience? Was it literature written by Africans? What about a non-African who wrote about Africa: did his work qualify as African literature? What if an African set his work in Greenland: did that qualify as African literature?” (Ngũgĩ 1986: 6) and so on. The discussion is well-known and need not be repeated. Katja Meintel, in her book-length study on francophone African crime fiction, uses a relatively rigid set of principles: novels by Sub-Saharan African authors set exclusively in Sub-Saharan African nation states which comply with certain ‘standard’ conventions of crime fiction, such as ‘mystery’, ‘suspense’, and ‘solution’ (Meintel 2008: 7-9, 31-35).

My own selection criteria are much more fluid, both in terms of the authors’ ‘origins’ and present locations, settings and genre boundaries. Readers using this list will find writers born and bred and still living on the African continent, as well as those with a significant ‘African connection’, such as family ties, histories of migration or decades of work experience. The majority of works listed here do indeed have an African setting; others are more transcontinental in character. Ideally, I should have followed Sabrina Brancato’s suggestion to ‘start from the texts themselves rather than from their authors’ (Brancato 2009: 108) as many of the writers lead transnational lives and are not easily ‘placed’. But this would have meant excluding works like (Kwame) Anthony Appiah’s Avenging Angel (a very ‘British’ whodunnit) which I believe to be one of the many wonderful curiosities in this compilation. In other cases, such as Gillian Slovo and June Drummond (who died in June 2011 at the age of 87), I only noted their works linked to South Africa, not any of their numerous other crime novels set in Britain or elsewhere. If anything is consistent in this checklist, then it is its inconsistency.

Regarding sub-genres, similar remarks are called for. Readers will find the whole range of common models, from the mystery/clue puzzle (Appiah) to the police procedural (Kunzmann), from the hardboiled (Mackenzie) to the thriller (Ng’weno), from the historical crime novel (Brown) to the postmodern anti-detective text (Nicol’s The Ibis Tapestry). As in many other contexts, however, genre boundaries are not fixed and often defy easy classification. Mũkoma wa Ngũgĩ had good reasons for dedicating Nairobi Heat to fellow writers Meja Mwangi and David Maillu and thanking them ‘for blurring the margins’. Fellow Kenyan Charles Mangua or the Nigerian Cyprian Ekwensi could be added here; they too blurred genre boundaries. Common to all the entries are strong elements of crime and investigation, but some works might not satisfy readerly expectations of ‘detective fiction’. Particularly striking is the overlap of certain popular genres, above all ‘romance’ and ‘crime’. The Macmillan Pacesetters book series is a case in point. Trying to reach an audience of young adult readers from the 1970s to 1990s, writers liberally mixed crime with romantic love stories and vice versa. Genya’s Links of a Chain and Kyerewaa’s Kimberlite Flame follow similar patterns, as does, to a certain extent, Makholwa’s Red Ink. Julika Griem (and a number of my students) recently remarked that Makholwa used thriller elements to establish a ‘Sex and the City’ formula in 21st-century Johannesburg (Griem 2010) rather than focus on a serial killer.

Most novels listed were originally written in English, but I have also included some authors whose works have been translated into English: Deon Meyer (Afrikaans) because he has become the yard stick of contemporary South African crime fiction; the late Ben Mtobwa because of his enormous popularity in Tanzania and across the Swahili-speaking world; Tracy Gilpin because her sequel to Double Cross has only been published in German.

Finally, a word of thanks to my crime fiction scouts who have provided me with new reading material over many years: Geoff Davis, Lutz Diegner, James Gibbs, Susanne Gehrmann, Martin Haas, Annekie Joubert, Susanne Mühleisen, Ranka Primorac, Silke Strickrodt, and Flora Veit-Wild. You are detectives in your own right.

A preliminary checklist of African and African-Diasporic crime novels in English

Abaidoo, Kodwo, 1995: Black Fury. Accra: Woeli.

Adebiyi, Bayo, 1971 [1968]: Danger – Easy Money! Ibadan: Daystar Press.

Adebiyi, Bayo, 1980: The Brothers. Akure: Fagbamigbe Publishers.

Akwa, Kojo, 1995: Dela Boya: The African Detective. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Akombi, Wilfred Ndum, 2011: A Dirty Game. Makon: Langaa Research & Pub­lish­ing CIG.

Andersson, Muff, 2002: Bite of the Banshee. Johannesburg: STE Publishers.

Appiah, Anthony, 1990: Avenging Angel. London: Constable.

Appiah, Anthony, 1994: Nobody Likes Letitia. London: Constable.

Appiah, Anthony, 1995: Another Death in Venice. London: Constable.

Babarinsa, Akinbolu, 1990 [1985]: Anything for Money. London: Macmillan Pace­setters.

Badoe, Yaba, 2009: True Murder. London: Jonathan Cape.

Banda, Sekelani S., 2000: Dead Ends. Lusaka: S&P.

Botchway, Christine, 1992: Where the Children Play. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Boyo, Tempe Omare, 1981: Somolu Blues. Akure: Fagbamigbe Publishers.

Brown, Andrew, 2005: Coldsleep Lullaby. Cape Town: Zebra Press.

Chitambo, John, 1993: Secret Blood. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Church, Peter, 2009 [2008]: Dark Video. Roggebaai: Umuzi.

Church, Peter, 2011: Bitter Pill. Kenilworth: Mercury.

Conteh, Osman, 1990: Double Trouble. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Corbett, Trevor R., 2010: An Ordinary Day. Cape Town: Umuzi.

Dibba, Ebou, 1980: Olu and the Smugglers. N.p.: Longmann.

Dison, David, 2007: Death in the New Republic. Auckland Park: Jacana.

Dlovu, Nandi, 1982: Angel of Death. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Dlovu, Nandi, 1983: Race Against Rats. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

D’lovu, Nandi, 1990: Murder by Magic: A Jon Zulu Adventure. Durban: Knox.

Dube, Hope, 1983 [1981]: State Secret. Harlow: Longman.

Dube, Hope, 1990 [1985]: Lobatse Train. Harlow: Longman.

Dube, Hope, 1992: Desert Storm. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Dow, Unity, 2002: The Screaming of the Innocent. Melbourne: Spinifex.

Duchi, David, 1983: Assassins on Safari. Nairobi: Longman Kenya.

Drummond, June, 1961 [1959]: The Black Unicorn. London: Corgi.

Eaton, Tom, 2005: The De Villiers Code. Johannesburg: Penguin.

Ebersohn, Wessel, 1990 [1979]: A Lonely Place to Die. London: Gollancz.

Ebersohn, Wessel, 1990 [1981]: Divide the Night. London: Gollancz.

Ebersohn, Wessel, 1990: Closed Circle. London: Gollancz.

Ebersohn, Wessel, 2009: The October Killings. Roggebaai: Umuzi.

Ebersohn, Wessel, 2010: Those Who Love Night. Cape Town: Umuzi.

Erapu, Laban, 1978: Queen of Gems. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Etherington, Graham, 1999: Black Madonna. Port Elizabeth: Brengray Publishing.

Farrell, Tish, 2000: Sea Running. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Fre, Kibreab, 2002: Projekt Babylon. London: Janus Books.

Fre, Kibreab, 2005: Projekt Babylon: The Second Attempt. London: Athena Books.

Fre, Kibreab, 2005: Messengers of Satan. London: Athena Books.

Freeman, Paul, 1998: Rumours of Ophir. Harare: College Press.

Fulani, Dan, 1979: The Hijack. Sunbury-on-Thames: Nelson Africa.

Fulani, Dan, 1983: The Power of Corruption. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

Fulani, Dan, 1981: The Price of Liberty. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Fulani, Dan, 1981: God’s Case: No Appeal. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Fulani, Dan, 1981: Sauna, Secret Agent. London: Arewa Books.

Fulani, Dan, 1981: Sauna and the Bank Robbers. London: Arewa Books.

Fulani, Dan, 1982: Sauna to the Rescue. Zaria: Hudahuda Publishing.

Fulani, Dan, 1982: The Fight for Life. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Fulani, Dan, 1982: No Telephone to Heaven. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

Fulani, Dan, 1983: Flight 800. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

Fulani, Dan, 1986: Sauna and the Drug Pedlars. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Galgut, Damon, 2004 [1995]: The Quarry. New York: Black Cat.

Garba, Mohamed Tukur, 1982 [1981]: The Black Temple. London: Macmillan Pace­setters.

Garba, Mohamed Tukur, 1983: Stop Press: Murder! London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Garba, Mohamed Tukur, 1986: Forgive Me Maryam. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Geer, Ben, 1998: Something More Sinister. Reading: Access Marketing & Publishing.

Genya, Monica, 1996: Links of a Chain. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.

Gicheru, Mwangi, 1981: The Double-Cross. Nairobi: Longman Kenya.

Gichuki, Corney, 2004: Hollow Bridges. Nairobi: Focus Books.

Gichuki, Corney, 2004: Shadows in the Mist. Nairobi: Focus Books.

Gilpin, Tracy, 2008: Double Cross. Richmond, UK: Black Star Crime.

Gilpin, Tracy, 2009: Schatten der Lüge. Transl. by Jens Plassmann. Munich: Heyne.

Githae, Charles Kahihu, 1987: A Worm in the Head. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Githae, Charles, 1994: Comrade Inmate. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.

Golakai, H[awa] J., 2011: The Lazarus Effect. Cape Town: Kwela Books.

Gray, Andrew, 2007: The Fence. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

Henson, Pauline, 2003: Case Closed: A Detective Story Set in Zimbabwe. Gweru: Mambo Press.

Hichens, Joanne, 2011: Divine Justice. Kenilworth: Mercury.

Hobbs, Jenny, 1990: Thoughts in a Makeshift Mortuary. London: Grafton Books.

Ibe, Adimchinma, 2010: Treachery in the Yard: A Nigerian Thriller. New York: Minotaur/ Thomas Dunne Books.

Ibe, Adimchinma, 2011: Patron of Terror. Charleston, SC: CreateSpace.

Ibizugbe, Uyi [S.O.], 1979: The Mysterious Ebony Carver. Benin City: Ethiope Publishing.

Ighavini, Dickson, 1982 [1980]: Bloodbath at Lobster Close. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Ighavini, Dickson, 1983 [1981]: Death is a Woman. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Ijeh, Chuks, 1985: State of Chaos. Enugu: Delta Fiction.

Ike, Chukwuemeka, 1991: Expo ’77. Ibadan: University Press.

Inyundo, Jill, 1996: The Hornets’ Nest. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Irungu, James and James Shimanyula, 1984: The Border Runners. London: Mac­mil­lan Pacesetters.

Irungu, James, 1985: The Lost Generation. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Irungu, James, 1987: Circle of Betrayal. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Johnson, Anthony Kwamlah, 1989: Sunset at Noon. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Johnson, Louis Omotayo, 1981: Murder at Dawn. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

Johnson, Louis Omotayo, 1981: Black Maria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

Johnson, Louis Omotayo, 1981: Rest in Pieces. Akure: Fagbamigbe Publishers.

Johnson, Louis Omotayo, 1982 [1980]: No Man’s Land. Akure: Fagbamigbe Pub­lishers.

Johnson, Louis Omotayo, 1983: Oil Pirates. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

Kachikwu, Ibe, 1986: Cocaine Connection. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

Katui, Munro, 2003: Operation Kamaliza. Nairobi: Phoenix.

Katondwaci, Jackson, 1993: Shadow of Death. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Kimani, John Kiggia, 1988: Life and Times of a Bank Robber. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Kimenye, Barbara, 1978 [1966]: The Smugglers. Sunbury-on-Thames: Nelson Africa.

Kimenye, Barbara, 1978: The Gemstone Affair. Sunbury-on-Thames: Nelson Africa.

Kimenye, Barbara, 1999: Moses and the Gunman. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Kiriamiti, John, 1987: My Life in Crime. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Kiriamiti, John, 1989: My Life in Crime: Milly’s Story. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Kiriamiti, John, 1998 [1994]: Son of Fate. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Kiriamiti, John, 1999: The Sinister Trophy. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Kiriamiti, John, 2004: My Life in Prison. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Koranteng, Kwasi, 1991: The Innocent Prisoner. Oxford: Heinemann JAWS.

Koranteng, Kwasi, 1992: The Gold Diggers. Oxford: Heinemann JAWS.

Koranteng, Kwasi, 1998: The Gun Merchant. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Kunzmann, Richard, 2004: Bloody Harvest. London: Macmillan.

Kunzmann, Richard, 2006: Salamander Cotton. London: Macmillan.

Kunzmann, Richard, 2008: Dead-End Road. London: Macmillan.

Kwakye, Benjamin, 2006: The Sun by Night. Trenton: Africa World Press.

Kyerewaa, Amma, 2002: Kimberlite Flame. Legon: Sub-Saharan Publishers.

Lemon, David, 1998: Killer Cat. Gweru: Modern Press.

Lotz, Sarah, 2009: Exhibit 10. Johannesburg: Penguin.

Lotz, Sarah, 2010: Tooth and Nailed. Johannesburg: Penguin

Mabura, Lily, 2000: The Pretoria Conspiracy. Nairobi: Focus Books.

Macgoye, Marjorie Oludhe, 1993: Victoria and Murder in Majengo. London: Mac­mil­lan.

Machingauta, Rodwell M., 1996 [1994]: Detective Ridgemore Riva. Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing House.

Mackenzie, Jassy, 2008: Random Violence. Roggebaai: Umuzi.

Mackenzie, Jassy, 2009: My Brother’s Keeper. Roggebaai: Umuzi.

Mackenzie, Jassy, 2010: Stolen Lives. Cape Town: Umuzi.

Mackenzie, Jassy, 2011: Worst Case. Cape Town: Umuzi.

Macras, George, 1996: African Mischief. London: Temple Publishing.

Maillu, David G., 1986: Benni Kamba 009 in Operation DXT. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Maillu, David G., 2005 [1980]: Benni Kamba 009 in The Equatorial Assignment. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Makholwa, Angela, 2007: Red Ink. Northlands: Pan Macmillan South Africa.

Mak’Oloo, Omondi, 1986: Too Young to Die. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Mangut, Joseph, 1983 [1982]: Have Mercy. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Mangut, Joseph, 1984 [1982]: The Blackmailers. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Mangut, Joseph, 1984: Women for Sale. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Marinho, Tony, 1984: The Victim. Ibadan: Onibonoje Press.

Marinho, Tony, 1987: Deadly Cargo! Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

Marinho, Tony 1992: The Epidemic. Ibadan: Heinemann Frontliners.

Marnewick, Chris, 2008: Shepherds & Butchers. Roggebaai: Umuzi.

Marnewick, Chris, 2010: The Soldier Who Said No. Cape Town: Umuzi.

Marnewick, Chris, 2011: Sailor’s Honour. Cape Town: Umuzi.

Marsh, Rob, 2009: Beasts of Prey. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

Masemola, Thabo Nkosinathi, 1993: Mixed Signals. Johannesburg: Skotaville.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2001: Morality for Beautiful Girls. New York: Anchor Books.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2002 [1998]: The No. 1 Ladies’ Detective Agency. New York: Anchor Books.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2003 [2000]: Tears of the Giraffe. London: Abacus.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2003 [2002]: The Kalahari Typing School for Men. Edinburgh: Polygon.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2003: The Cupboard Full of Life. Edinburgh: Polygon.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2004: The Company of Cheerful Ladies. Edinburgh: Polygon.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2006: Blue Shoes and Happiness. Edinburgh: Polygon.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2007: The Good Husband of Zebra Drive. Edinburgh: Polygon.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2008: The Miracle at Speedy Motors. London: Little, Brown.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2009: Tea Time for the Traditionally Built. London: Little, Brown.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2010: The Double Comfort Safari Club. London: Little, Brown.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2011: The Saturday Big Tent Wedding Party. London: Little, Brown.

McCall Smith, Alexander, 2011: Precious and the Monkeys: Precious Ramotswe’s Very First Case. Edinburgh: Polygon.

McClure, James, 1979: The Sunday Hangman. New York: Avon.

McClure, James, 1981 [1975]: Snake. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

McClure, James, 1982 [1974]: The Gooseberry Fool. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

McClure, James, 1982 [1976]: Rogue Eagle. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

McClure, James, 1982 [1980]: The Blood of an Englishman. New York: Pantheon.

McClure, James, 1986 [1971]: The Steam Pig. London: Coronet.

McClure, James, 1986 [1984]: The Artful Egg. London: Coronet.

McClure, James, 1991: The Song Dog. New York: The Mysterious Press.

McClure, James, 1992 [1972]: The Caterpillar Cop. London: Faber & Faber.

Meena, Gladstone, 1994: Remember Death. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Meyer, Deon, 1999: Dead Before Dying. Translated by Madeleine van Biljon. London: Coronet.

Meyer, Deon, 2000: Dead at Daybreak. Translated by Madeleine van Biljon. London: Coronet.

Meyer, Deon, 2003: Heart of the Hunter. Translated by K.L. Seegers. London: Coronet.

Meyer, Deon, 2007: Devil’s Peak. Translated by K.L. Seegers. London: Hodder and Stough­ton.

Meyer, Deon, 2009: Blood Safari. Translated by K.L. Seegers. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Meyer, Deon, 2010: Thirteen Hours. Translated by K.L. Seegers. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Meyer, Deon, 2011: Trackers. Translated by K.L. Seegers. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Mhlope, A., 1996: A Picture of Innocence. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Mokae, Gomolemo, 1996: The Secret in My Bosom. Florida Hills, South Africa: Vivlia.

Momplé, Lília, 2001: Neighbours: The Story of a Murder. Translated by Richard Bart­lett and Isaura de Oliveira. Oxford: Heinemann.

Mpasu, Sam, 1995: Nobody’s Friend. Harare: African Publishing Group.

Mũkoma wa Ngũgĩ, 2009: Nairobi Heat. Johannesburg: Penguin.

Musodza, Masimba. 2009: Uriah’s Vengeance. Coventry: Lion Press.

Msechu, Richard Henry, 1999: The Pretorian Agenda. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Pub­lishing House.

Msere, David, 1999: Danger Express. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Mutahi, Wahome, 1991: Three Days on the Cross. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya.

Mutahi, Wahome, 1999: Doomsday. Nairobi: Focus Books.

Mtobwa, Ben, 1988: Give Me Money. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Mtobwa, Ben, 1999: Dar es Salaam by Night. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Mtobwa, Ben R., 2002: Zero Hour. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Mwangi, Meja, 1979: The Bushtrackers. Nairobi: Longman Drumbeat.

Mwangi, Meja, 1987: Bread of Sorrow. Nairobi: Longman Kenya.

Mwangi, Meja, 1996 [1973]: Kill Me Quick. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.

Mzobe, Sifiso, 2010: Young Blood. Cape Town: Kwela Books.

Ndunguru, S.N., 1997: A Wreath for Fr. Mayer of Masasi. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota.

Ndunguru, S., 2004: Spared. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota.

Nga’ab, Prim, 1994: Deadly News. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Ng’weno, Hilary, 1975: The Men from Pretoria. Nairobi: Longman Kenya.

Nicol, Mike, 1998: The Ibis Tapestry. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Nicol, Mike, 2008: Payback. Roggebaai: Umuzi.

Nicol, Mike, 2010: Killer Country. Cape Town: Umuzi.

Nicol, Mike, 2011: Black Heart. Cape Town: Umuzi.

Nicol, Mike and Joanne Hichens, 2006: Out to Score. Roggebaai: Umuzi.

Njoku, Jerry N., 1985: Vengeance is Sweet. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing.

Nkhana, Miriam, 1996: The Money Road. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Nunn, Malla, 2009: A Beautiful Place to Die. New York: Atria.

Nunn, Malla, 2010: Let the Dead Lie. New York: Washington Square Press.

Nwankwo, Agwuncha Arthur, 2002: The Day of the Long Shadow. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing.

Nwankwo, Nkem, 1984. The Scapegoat. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing.

Nwokolo, Chuma, 1983: The Extortionist. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Nwokolo, Chuma, 1988: Dangerous Inheritance. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Nwenga, J.K., 1992: The Axe of Vengeance. Gweru: Mambo Press.

Nzekwe, Amaechi, 2002 [1985]: A Killer on the Loose. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing.

Ofoji, Charles, 2005: Illegal in Berlin. Baltimore: PublishAmerica.

Okoro, Nathaniel, 1998 [1979]: The Twin Detectives. Ibadan: Evans Brothers.

Okoye, Ifeoma, 1992: Chimere. Lagos: Longman Nigeria.

Okpi, Kalu, 1980: On the Road. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Okpi, Kalu, [1981]: The Smugglers. [London]: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Okpi, Kalu, 1982: Coup! London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Okpi, Kalu, 1982: The South African Affair. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Okpi, Kalu, 1983: The Politician. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Oloyede, Sola, 1981: I Profess This Crime. Akure: Fagbamigbe Publishers.

Oloyede, Sola, 1983: S.A.F.A Chapter One: Memory of a Silence. Ibadan: Soorg Books.

Omotoso, Kole, 1974: Fella’s Choice. Benin City: Ethiope Publishing.

Omotoso, Kole, 1976: The Scales. Ibadan: Onibonoje Press.

Onwu, Charry Ada, 1992: One Bad Turn. Akure: Fagbamigbe Publishers.

Orford, Margie, 2006: Like Clockwork. Cape Town: Oshun.

Orford, Margie, 2007: Blood Rose. Cape Town: Oshun.

Orford, Margie, 2009: Daddy’s Girl. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

Orford, Margie, 2011: Gallows Hill. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

Parkes, Nii Ayikwei, 2009: Tail of the Blue Bird. London: Jonathan Cape.

Phil-Ebosie, Philip, 1983: Dead of Night. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Quartey, Kwei, 2010: Wife of the Gods. New York: Random House.

Quartey, Kwei, 2011: Children of the Street. New York: Random House.

Rabie, Sue, 2008: Boston Snow Plough. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

Rabie, Sue, 2010: Blood at Bay. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

Rabie, Sue, 2011: Fallout. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

Reeve, Brian, 2005: A Dangerous Game. Lewes, East Sussex: The Book Guild.

Ruheni, Mwangi, 1975: The Mystery Smugglers. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Saisi, Frank, 1992 [1984]: The Bhang Syndicate. Nairobi: Spear Books.

Saro-Wiwa, Ken, 1988: Prisoners of Jebs. Port Harcourt: Saros International Pub­lishers.

Schuster, Anne, 2005: Foolish Delusions. Johannesburg: Jacana.

Segun, Omowunmi, 1992: The Third Dimple. Ibadan: Heinemann Frontliners.

Serrano, Jumoke, 1986: The Last Don Out. Ibadan: Abiprint Publishing.

Slovo, Gillian, 1984: Morbid Symptoms. New York: Debner.

Sotabinda, Maurice, 1984: Dangerous Waters. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Sotabinda, Maurice, 1985: The Money-Doublers. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Smith, Roger, 2009: Mixed Blood. New York: Henry Holton and Company.

Smith, Roger, 2010: Wake Up Dead. London: Serpent’s Tail.

Smith, Roger, 2011: Dust Devils. London: Serpent’s Tail.

Sibale, Grieve, 1998: Murder in the Forest. Lusaka: Tupelo Honey Fiction Series.

Stanley, Michael, 2008: A Carrion Death. London: Headline.

Stanley, Michael, 2009: A Deadly Trade. London: Headline. [Published in the U.S. under the title The Second Death of Goodluck Tinubu, 2009].

Stanley, Michael, 2011: Death of the Mantis. London: Headline.

Tacca, Alan, 1999: The Naked Hostage. Kampala: Monitor.

Taylor, Jane, 2005: Of Wild Dogs. Cape Town: Double Storey.

Tembo, John, 1991: Dead Men Don’t Talk. Oxford: Heinemann JAWS.

Thorpe, Victor, 1979: The Worshippers. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Thorpe, Victor, 1982 [1980]: The Instrument. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Thorpe, Victor, 1983 [1981]: Stone of Vengeance. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Thorpe, Victor, 1987: The Exterminators. London: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Thorpe, Victor, 1992: Dealers in Death. Oxford: Macmillan Pacesetters.

Tlholwe, Diale, 2008: Ancient Rites. Cape Town: Kwela Books.

Tlholwe, Diale, 2011: Counting the Coffins. Cape Town: Kwela Books.

Ulasi, Adaora Lily, 1970: Many Thing You No Understand. London: Michael Joseph.

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